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Characterization of the complete genome, antigenicity, pathogenicity, tissue tropism, and shedding of a recombinant avian infectious bronchitis virus with a ck/CH/LJL/140901-like backbone and an S2 fr
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Jiang L1, Han Z1, Chen Y1, Zhao W1, Sun J1, Zhao Y1, Liu S2.

Virus Res. 2017 Nov 12;244:99-109

Abstract

In this study, we isolated an infectious bronchitis virus, designated I1101/16, from broiler breeders in China. Analysis of the S1 gene showed that isolate I1101/16 was genetically close to strain ck/CH/LJL/140901, which belongs to the TW I genotype (also known as lineage GI-7 based on the recent IBV classification), however the S2 gene showed genetic diversity comparing to that of S1 gene. Comparison of the genomic sequences showed that the genome of isolate I1101/16 was similar to that of strain ck/CH/LJL/140901 from the 5' end of the genome to the 5' end of the S2 gene and from the 5' end of the 3a gene to the end of the genome, whereas the remaining parts of the genome sequences were more closely related to those of strain 4/91 than those of ck/CH/LJL/140901, thereby suggesting that recombination might have occurred during the origin of the virus. SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the complete genomic sequence confirmed this hypothesis, where it showed that isolate I1101/16 arose through recombination events between ck/CH/LJL/140901- and 4/91-like viruses. Isolate I1101/16 and strain ck/CH/LJL/140901 shared identical amino acids in almost all five of their B cell epitopes, but the two viruses had a serotype relatedness value of 65, which is well below 80, i.e., the lower cutoff value for viruses of the same serotype. In addition, pathogenicity tests demonstrated that isolate I1101/16 was more pathogenic to 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens than strain ck/CH/LJL/140901, according to analysis of the clinical signs, whereas strain ck/CH/LJL/140901 exhibited prolonged replication and shedding after challenge compared with isolate I1101/16. This study did not provide evidence that recombination can directly alter the antigenicity, virulence, replication, shedding, and tissue tropism of a virus, but it did show that recombination events are likely to be major determinants of viral evolution.

 
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