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Li H, Gao Q, Shao Y, Sun B, Wang F, Qiao Y, Wang N, Liu S. Gallid Herpesvirus 1 Initiates Apoptosis in Uninfected Cells through Paracrine Repression of p53. J Virol. 2018 Jun 27

发布日期:2018-07-05 15:15  浏览次数:

Gallid Herpesvirus 1 Initiates Apoptosis in Uninfected Cells through Paracrine Repression of p53.
Hai Li, Qi Gao, Yuhao Shao, Bangyao Sun, Fengjie Wang, Yangyang Qiao, Nana Wang, Shengwang Liu
J Virol. 2018 Jun 27. pii: JVI.00529-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00529-18

Abstract
Apoptosis is a common innate defense mechanism of host cells against viral infection and is therefore suppressed by many viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), via various strategies. A recent in vivo study reported the apoptosis of remote uninfected cells during Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) infection, yet little is known about this previously unknown aspect of herpesvirus-host interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptosis of uninfected host cells during GaHV-1 infection. The present study used in vitro and in ovo models, which avoided potential interference by host anti-viral immunity, and demonstrated that this GaHV-1-host interaction is independent of host immune responses and important for both the pathological effect of viral infection and early viral dissemination from the primary infection site to distant tissues. Further, we revealed that GaHV-1 infection triggers this process in a paracrine-regulated manner. Using genome-wide transcriptome analyses in combination with a set of functional studies, we found that this paracrine-regulated effect requires the repression of p53 activity in uninfected cells. In contrast, the activation of p53 not only prevented the apoptosis of remote uninfected cells and subsequent pathological damage induced by GaHV-1 infection but also delayed viral dissemination significantly. Moreover, p53 activation repressed viral replication both in vitro and in ovo, suggesting that dual cell-intrinsic mechanisms underlie the suppression of GaHV-1 infection by p53 activation. This study uncovers the mechanism underlying the herpesvirus-triggered apoptosis of remote host cells and extends our understanding of both herpesvirus-host interactions and the roles of p53 in viral infection.ImportanceIt is well-accepted that herpesviruses suppress the apoptosis of host cells via various strategies to ensure sustained viral replication during infection. However, a recent in vivo study reported the apoptosis of remote uninfected cells during GaHV-1 infection. The mechanism and the biological meaning of this unexpected herpesvirus-host interaction are unclear. This study uncovers the mechanisms of herpesvirus-triggered apoptosis in uninfected cells and may also contribute to a mechanistic illustration of paracrine-regulated apoptosis induced by other viruses in uninfected host cells.

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