Wang G , Yu Y , He X , Wang M , Cai X , Zimmerman JJ .
Virus Res. 2019 Mar 1;265:20-29. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.02.019. [Epub ahead of print]
Red bone marrow is physiologically unique in that it is both the major hematopoietic organ and a primary lymphoid organ. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects normal bone marrow functions. The cumulative effect of PRRSV infection is acute bone marrow failure, i.e., hypoplasia characterized by the absence of normal myeloid and erythroid precursors and increased red bone marrow M:E ratios. The measurable clinical consequence of PRRSV infection on normal red bone marrow functions is a reduction in the number of cells emigrating to the peripheral blood resulting in leucopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. These observations may be explained by the fact that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, i.e., imDCs, mDCs, monocytes, macrophages, and myeloid precursor cells are susceptible to PRRSV. Apoptosis in bone marrow-derived cells occurs both as a direct consequence of infection and indirectly via a bystander effect. Immunologically, PRRSV-susceptible mononuclear cells are the first line of defense against microbial infection and responsible for antigen recognition, processing, and presentation to T and B cells; a critical step in the initiation and development of an effective adaptive immune. Thus, impairment of normal immune function renders the host less able to resist and/or eliminate secondary infectious agents and partially explains the synergy between PRRSV and bacterial and viral co-infections.
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Apoptosis; Bone marrow; Immunity; PRRSV; Pathogenesis