Gaopeng Hou†, Biyun Xue†, Liangliang Li, Yuchen Nan, Lu Zhang, Kuokuo Li, Qin Zhao, Julian A. Hiscox, James P. Stewart, Chunyan Wu*, Jingfei Wang* and En-Min Zhou*
Front Microbiol. 2019 Aug 6;10:1815. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01815. eCollection 2019.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a highly restricted tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PRRSV entry into permissive cells involves several mediators in addition to two required host cell receptors, CD163 and MYH9. It is unknown whether CD163 directly interacts and/or cooperates with MYH9 to facilitate PRRSV infection. In this study, CD163 and MYH9 were co-immunoprecipitated from PAMs regardless of PRRSV infection status. Further truncation analysis indicated that the CD163 N-terminal region, containing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains 1 to 4 (SRCR1-4), directly interacts with the MYH9 C-terminal domain region without involvement of other adaptor proteins. Meanwhile, non-permissive HEK293T cells that stably expressed truncated swine CD163 SRCR1-4 domain did not support virus attachment. However, virus attachment to cells stably expressing SRCR5-CT domain was demonstrated to occur without appreciable virus internalization. The involvement of the SRCR1-4 domain in virus internalization was further demonstrated by the fact that incubation of recombinant SRCR1-4 protein with PAMs abolished subsequent virus internalization by permissive cells. These results demonstrated that CD163 SRCR1-4 interacts with the MYH9 C-terminal domain to facilitate PRRSV virion internalization in permissive cells, thus expanding our understanding of PRRSV cell-invasion mechanisms.
CD163; MYH9; PRRSV; protein–protein interaction; virus internalization