Lei Shuai, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Xijun He, Xijun Wang, Zhigao Bu
J Virol. 2019 Oct 30. pii: JVI.01819-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01819-19
Rabies virus (RABV) is a widespread pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans and animals. It is suggested that multiple host factors are involved in RABV host entry. Here, we showed that RABV uses integrin β1 (ITGB1) for cellular entry. RABV infection was drastically decreased after ITGB1 siRNA knockdown and moderately increased after ITGB1 overexpression in cells. ITGB1 directly interacts with RABV glycoprotein. Upon infection, ITGB1 is internalized into cells and transported to late endosomes together with RABV. The infectivity of cell-adapted RABV in cells and street RABV in mice was neutralized by ITGB1 ectodomain soluble protein. The role of ITGB1 in RABV infection depends on interaction with fibronectin in cells and mice. We found that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide and antibody to ITGB1 significantly blocked RABV infection in cells in vitro, and street RABV infection in mice via intramuscular inoculation but not the intracerebral route. ITGB1 also interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is the proposed receptor for peripheral RABV infection. Our findings suggest that ITGB1 is a key cellular factor for RABV peripheral entry, and could be a potential therapeutic target for post-exposure treatment against rabies.IMPORTANCE Rabies is a severe zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus (RABV). However, the nature of RABV entry remains unclear, which has hindered the development of therapy for rabies. It is suggested that modulations of RABV glycoprotein and multiple host factors are responsible for RABV invasion. Here, we showed that integrin β1 (ITGB1) directly interacts with RABV glycoprotein, and both proteins are internalized together into host cells. Differential expression of ITGB1 in mature muscle and cerebral cortex of mice led to A-4 (ITGB1 special antibody) and RGD peptide (competitive inhibitor for interaction between ITGB1 and fibronectin) blocked street RABV infection via intramuscular but not intracerebral inoculation in mice, suggesting that ITGB1 plays a role in RABV peripheral entry. Our study revealed this distinct cellular factor in RABV infection, which may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.