Lingdi Niu，Zheng Wang，Lili Zhao，Yu Wang，Xingyang Cui，Yunjia Shi，Hongyan Chen，Junwei Ge
Arch Virol. 2019 Nov 19. doi: 10.1007/s00705-019-04433-4. [Epub ahead of print]
Canine circovirus (canine CV) is an etiological agent associated with diarrhea, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and vasculitis. Although canine CV has been identified and characterized in southern China in recent years, its epidemiology in other regions of China and its precise molecular characteristics have not been examined. In this study, we examined 141 fecal specimens collected from domestic dogs with or without diarrhea in Heilongjiang province, Northeastern China, during 2014 to 2016. A total of 18 out of 141 samples were found to be positive for canine CV by real-time quantitative PCR. In the diarrhea samples, canine CV was detected in coinfections with canine parvovirus 2. More importantly, two different canine CV strains were detected in one sample. Five canine CV genomes were successfully amplified. Sequence analysis showed that there were two unique amino acid changes in the Rep protein (N39S in the K1 strain, and T71A in the XF16 strain). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that canine CV could be divided into four genotypes, and specific nucleotide mutations could be used for confirming the four genotypes. Moreover, recombination analysis revealed that a total of eight recombination events were found in five genomic sequences. Molecular evolution analysis showed that the canine CV has been under purifying selection. This study provides evidence that at least three genotypes of canine CV are co-circulating in China. Continuous epidemiological surveillance is therefore necessary to understand their importance for the evolution of canine CV.