Fang Yu, Yi Yan, Mang Shi, Hai-Zhou Liu, Hong-Liang Zhang, Yong-Bo Yang, Xin-Yi Huang, Phillip C Gauger, Jianqiang Zhang, Yan-He Zhang, Guang-Zhi Tong, Zhi-Jun Tian, Jian-Jun Chen, Xue-Hui Cai, Di Liu, Ganwu Li, Tong-Qing An
J Virol. 2020 Jan 2. pii: JVI.01813-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01813-19
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an important pathogen that affects the pig industry, is a highly genetically-diverse RNA virus. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of this virus have not been completely elucidated. In this study, comparative analyses of all available genomic sequences of North American (NA) type PRRSVs (n = 355, including 138 PRRSV genomes sequenced in this study) in China and the United States during 2014-2018 revealed a high frequency of inter-lineage recombination hotspots in non-structural protein 9 (NSP9) and the GP2-GP3 regions. Lineage 1 (L1) PRRSV was found to be susceptible to recombination among PRRSVs both in China and the US. The recombinant major parent between the 1991-2013 data and the 2014-2018 data showed a trend from complex to simple. The major recombination pattern changed from an L8 to L1 backbone during 2014-2018 for Chinese PRRSVs, whereas L1 was always the major parent for US PRRSVs. Intra-lineage recombination hotspots were not as concentrated as inter-lineage recombination hotspots. In the two main clades with differential diversity in L1, NADC30-like PRRSVs is undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, NADC34-like PRRSVs has been relatively stable in population genetic diversity for years. Systematic analyses of insertion and deletion (indel) polymorphisms of NSP2 divided PRRSVs into 25 patterns, which could generate novel references for the classification of PRRSVs. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the recombination of PRRSVs and indicate the need for coordinated epidemiological investigations among countries.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we systematically compared differences in the lineage distribution, recombination, NSP2 polymorphisms, and evolutionary dynamics between NA-type PRRSVs in China and in the US. Strikingly, we found high frequency of inter-lineage recombination hotspots in non-structural protein 9 (NSP9) and in the GP2-GP3 region. Also, intra-lineage recombination hotspots were scattered across the genome between Chinese and US strains. Furthermore, we proposed novel methods based on NSP2 indel patterns for the classification of PRRSVs. Evolutionary dynamics analysis revealed that NADC30-like PRRSV is undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, suggesting that a dominant population may occur and cause an outbreak. Our findings offer important insights into the recombination of PRRSVs, and suggest the need for coordinated international epidemiological investigations.
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