Yao Zhu, Wenyu Liu, Stefan Schwarz, Changzhen Wang, Qin Yang,Tian Luan, Lingli Wang, Siguo Liu, Wanjiang Zhang
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Feb 4. pii: dkaa010. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa010
To characterize an NDM-1-encoding multiresistance IncHI5 plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae complex of chicken origin.
Carbapenemase genes were detected by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The MICs for the E. cloacae complex isolate and its transformant were determined by the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods. Conjugation and electrotransformation were performed to assess the horizontal transferability of the carbapenemase plasmid. Plasmid DNA was isolated from the transformant and fully sequenced using Illumina HiSeq and PacBio platforms. Plasmid stability was investigated by sequential passages on antibiotic-free medium. A circular intermediate was detected by inverse PCR and Sanger sequencing.
Plasmid pNDM-1-EC12 carried a conserved IncHI5 backbone and exhibited an MDR phenotype. All antimicrobial resistance genes were clustered in a single MDR region. Genetic environment analysis revealed that the blaNDM-1 gene was in a novel complex integron, In469. Based on sequence analysis, the blaNDM-1-carrying region was thought to be inserted by homologous recombination. Inverse PCR indicated that an ISCR1-mediated circular intermediate can be formed. Plasmid pNDM-1-EC12 was stably maintained both in the parental strain and the transformant without selective pressure. Comprehensive analysis of IncHI5-type plasmids suggested that they may become another key vehicle for rapid transmission of carbapenemase genes.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a fully sequenced IncHI5 plasmid recovered from an E. cloacae complex strain of food-producing animal origin. Co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 with genes encoding resistance to other antimicrobial agents on the same IncHI5 plasmid may result in the co-selection of blaNDM-1 and facilitates its persistence and rapid dissemination.