Lingdan Yin, Jianfei Chen, Liang Li, Shanshan Guo, Mei Xue, Jialin Zhang, Xiang Liu, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
J Virol. 2020 May 6. pii: JVI.00480-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00480-20. [Epub ahead of print]
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an economically important enteropathogen of swine with worldwide distribution. PDCoV primarily infects the small intestine instead of the large intestine in vivo However, the underlying mechanism of PDCoV tropism to different intestinal segments remains poorly understood as a result of the lack of a suitable in vitro intestinal model that recapitulates the cellular diversity and complex functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we established the PDCoV infection model of crypt-derived enteroids from different intestinal segments. Enteroids were susceptible to PDCoV and multiple types of different functional intestinal epithelia were infected by PDCoV in vitro and in vivo We further found that PDCoV favorably infected the jejunum and ileum, and restrictedly replicated in the duodenum and colon. Mechanistically, enteroids from different intestinal regions displayed a distinct gene expression profile, and the differential expression of primary viral receptor host aminopeptidase N (APN) instead of the IFN responses determined the susceptibility of different intestinal segments to PDCoV although PDCoV substantially elicited antiviral genes production in enteroids after infection. Additional studies showed that PDCoV infection significantly induced the expression of type I and III IFNs at the late stage of infection, and exogenous IFN inhibited PDCoV replication in enteroids. Hence, our results provide critical inputs to further dissect the molecular mechanisms of PDCoV-host interactions and pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE The zoonotic potential of the PDCoV, a coronavirus efficiently infecting cells from broad species including porcine, chicken and human, emphasizes the urgent need to further study the cell and tissue tropism of PDCoV in its natural host. Herein, we generated crypt stem cell-derived enteroids from porcine different intestinal regions, which well recapitulated the events in vivo of PDCoV infection that PDCoV targeted multiple types of intestinal epithelia and preferably infected the jejunum and ileum compared with the duodenum and colon. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the expression of APN receptor rather than the IFN responses determined the susceptibility of different regions of the intestines to PDCoV infection though PDCoV infection markedly elicited the IFN responses. Our findings provide important insights into how the distinct gene expression profiles of the intestinal segments determine the cell and tissue tropism of PDCoV.
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