Shuhui Qi,Lijing Wo,Chao Sun,Juan Zhang,Quanhai Pang,Xin Yin
Viruses.2022 Oct 20;14(10):2302.doi: 10.3390/v14102302.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most hazardous viruses, which causes huge economic losses in the cattle industry around the world. In recent years, there has been a continuous increase in the diversity of pestivirus worldwide. As a member of the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family, BVDV has a wide range of host animals including cattle, goat, sheep, pig, camel and other cloven-hoofed animals, and it has multi-tissue tropism as well. The recognition of their permissive cells by viruses via interaction with the cellular receptors is a prerequisite for successful infection. So far, little is known about the cellular receptors essential for BVDV entry and their detailed functions during BVDV infection. Thus, discovery of the cellular receptors involved in the entry of BVDV and other pestiviruses is significant for development of the novel intervention. The viral envelope glycoprotein Erns and E2 are crucial determinants of the cellular tropism of BVDV. The cellular proteins bound with Erns and E2 potentially participate in BVDV entry, and their abundance might determine the cellular tropism of BVDV. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the cellular molecules have been described for BVDV entry, such as, complement regulatory protein 46 (CD46), heparan sulfate (HS), the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). Furthermore, we focus on their implications of the recently identified cellular receptors for pestiviruses in BVDV life cycle. This knowledge provides a theoretical basis for BVDV prevention and treatment by targeting the cellular receptors essential for BVDV infection.
Keywords: ADAM17; BVDV; CD46; HS; LDL receptor; receptor; viral tropism.