Tong-Yun Wang,Fan-Dan Meng,Guo-Ju Sang,Hong-Liang Zhang,Zhi-Jun Tian,Hao Zheng,Xue-Hui Cai,Yan-Dong Tang
Emerg Microbes Infect.2023 Dec;12(1):2157339.doi: 10.1080/22221751.2022.2157339.
In recent years, an increasing number of emerging and remerging virus outbreaks have occurred and the rapid development of vaccines against these viruses has been crucial. Controlling the replication of premature termination codon (PTC)-containing viruses is a promising approach to generate live but replication-defective viruses that can be used for potent vaccines. Here, we used anticodon-engineered transfer RNAs (ACE-tRNAs) as powerful precision switches to control the replication of PTC-containing viruses. We showed that ACE-tRNAs display higher potency of reading through PTCs than genetic code expansion (GCE) technology. Interestingly, ACE-tRNA has a site preference that may influence its read-through efficacy. We further attempted to use ACE-tRNAs as a novel viral vaccine platform. Using a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pseudotyped virus as an RNA virus model, we found that ACE-tRNAs display high potency for read-through viral PTCs and precisely control their production. Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a herpesvirus, was used as a DNA virus model. We found that ACE-tRNAs display high potency for reading through viral PTCs and precisely controlling PTC-containing virus replication. In addition, PTC-engineered PRV completely attenuated and lost virulence in mice in vivo , and immunization with PRV containing a PTC elicited a robust immune response and provided complete protection against wild-type PRV challenge. Overall, replication-controllable PTC-containing viruses based on ACE-tRNAs provide a new strategy to rapidly attenuate virus infection and prime robust immune responses. This technology can be used as a platform for rapidly developing viral vaccines in the future.
Keywords: Engineered transfer RNA; PTC virus; Pseudorabies virus; novel vaccine; switch; vaccine.